Berkeley Progressive Alliance

November Ballot Recommendations

CANDIDATESEndorsed Candidates

State Assembly, 15th District: Jovanka Beckles

Berkeley City Councilmember, District 1: Igor Tregub

Berkeley City District 7: Rigel Robinson

Berkeley City Council District 4: Kate Harrison

Berkeley City District 8: Mary Kay Lacey

Berkeley Rent Stabilization Board: (Vote for 5): James Chang, Soli Alpert, Paola Laverde, Maria Poblet & John T. Selawsky

Berkeley City Auditor: Jenny Wong. 



Measure O, $130 Million Affordable Housing Bond………. YES

Measure P, Raises Transfer Tax (homeless housing)…….. YES

Measure Q, Amends Berkeley Rent Control…………………. YES

Measure R, Vision 2050 Advisory…………………………………. YES


Endorsements for City Council member for District 7 plus Berkeley Measures by BCA, BPA and BTU

Sat. Sept. 15 @ 2pm, at East  Bay Media Center, 1939 Addison Street

Join our Berkeley Citizens Action, Berkeley Progressive Alliance and Berkeley Tenants Union for a joint endorsement meeting on Berkeley ballot measures & District 7 council endorsements. Council candidates include Aidan Hill, Rigel Robinson & Ces Rosales. Speakers also include Gus Newport, Gail McLaughlin, plus George Lippman will present on his vision for police accountability moving forward. Kriss Worthington will provide closing remarks.

We will also consider endorsement for the city auditor position. In March the vote of progressives was evenly split between candidates Jenny Wong and Steve Levine, so no endorsement could be made. Steve Levine has since dropped out and endorsed Jenny Wong, so we are reconsidering this office. Vladislav Davidzon is also running, however responded that he does not want any endorsements.

We will be re-looking at our endorsement of Measure Q Amendments to the Berkeley Rent Stabilization and Eviction for Good Cause Ordinance and considering the following Berkeley measures: Measure P Transfer Tax  and Measure R Advisory Measure – Vision 2050

Additionally, BTU members will vote on finalized candidate endorsements for Districts 1, 4, & 8 (their steering committee had previously made interim recommendations).

If your membership for any of the three organizations has expired, don’t worry… You can pay the current years dues at the door. You can even join BTU without the usual 30 day wait by participating in our canvass earlier that day (see link here).

See below for Candidates responses  to our questionnaire

Candidates for District 7 councilmember:       Aidan Hill         Rigel Robinson         Ces Rosales

Candidate for City Auditor: Jenny Wong

Record Spending and Outside Money Help Wicks in AD-15 Primary

From the Berkeley Daily Planet

Rob Wrenn
Saturday June 23, 2018 – 12:42:00 PM

In November, voters in Berkeley and the rest of the historically progressive 15thAssembly District will decide between two dramatically different candidates: Buffy Wicks, a newcomer to the district, with no local track record, but with record amounts of outside money, and Jovanka Beckles, a locally based candidate with a strong record of progressive activism.

Follow the Money

Through May 19, Assembly District candidate Buffy Wicks, who finished first in a 12 candidate race in the June 5 primary, received contributions totaling $656,597.91, a record amount for this district, according to campaign filings with the California Secretary of State.

On top of that, an independent expenditure committee of Govern for California, a group of wealthy “philanthropists” who support charter schools, spent $493,332.70 to support her candidacy, while the California Dental Association Independent Expenditure PAC spent $99,481.46 to support her.

The money her campaign raised added to the money spent to support her by outside groups totals $1,249,414, a record amount for a candidate in our local Assembly District and far more than in previous elections. Govern for California’s heavy spending for Wicks makes this election very different from previous 15th District races.

The Out of State Candidate

Buffy Wicks, who has never held any elected office, managed Hilary Clinton’s 2016 California Primary campaign against Bernie Sanders and also worked in Barack Obama’s campaigns and in the Obama White House. She has only been registered to vote in the 15th Assembly since 2016 and between 2008 and 2016 lived out of state or in Los Angeles.

She has no track record working on local issues in the district and, for that reason, it may not be surprising that only 14% of those who have contributed money to her campaign so far live in the district.

48% of contributors to Wicks’ campaign committee live out of state. 20% are residents of Washington D.C. and its suburbs. She has more contributors not only in DC and its suburbs, but in Chicago and its suburbs, and in New York City and its suburbs, than she does in either Berkeley or Oakland.

There has never been a such an expensive local Assembly race or a candidate who has relied so heavily on outside money. It’s not unusual for candidates to receive some contributions from family members and friends in other parts of the country, but it is unusual for a local East Bay candidate to rely so heavily on out of state money.

The Locally Based Candidates

In sharp contrast, Jovanka Beckles, Vice Mayor of Richmond, in her second term as a member of the Richmond City Council, who came in second behind Wicks, raised a more modest $157,844.25 in the same period, less than a quarter of what Wicks raised. Beckles spent less per vote received than any of the other six major candidates. Spending for Wicks per vote received was more than three and a half times spending for Beckles as of the end of the latest filing period, with total spending not yet reported.

67% of Beckles’ contributors live in the District; only 4% of her contributors live out of state. No outside money from independent expenditure committees run by wealthy investors or special interests was spent to support her. Not surprisingly, she has the most contributors from Richmond.

Robs Table

Berkeley school board member Judy Appel, who finished fourth, raised $288,791; 7% of her contributors reside out of state; 59% reside in the district. Appel had the largest number of contributors from Berkeley and was endorsed by four current Berkeley councilmembers.

Two Berkeley-based candidates, East Bay MUD director Andy Katz and Berkeley City Councimember Ben Bartlett also raised very little money from out of state and got most of their contributions from AD-15 and the larger Bay Area.

Big Increase Over 2014

In the 2014 Assembly District 15 primary, Elizabeth Echols received 31.1% of the vote in the June primary, running ahead of Tony Thurmond who received 24.4%.

In the same reporting periods that year, Echols, the best financed candidate, received contributions totaling $358,528.05, while Thurmond’s contributions totaled $242,014.90. Thurmond went on to win the November election.

Wicks this year raised about $300,000 more than Echols did in 2014 for the same campaign filing periods.

Who is Govern for California?

So who the outsiders who are pouring so much money into our local Assembly race? Harriet Steele’s June 1 post on helps to answer the question and is worth reading. You can find it here:

Steele reports that Govern for California’s founders are David Crane, a former advisor to Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger; David Penner, currently chairman of the board of Wal-Mart, and Ron Conway, a wealthy tech investor.

One of Govern for California’s committees takes the money it receives from wealthy donors and gives it as PAC contributions to candidates they like. Wicks received two $4400 PAC contributions (one for the primary; one for the general election) from this committee, the maximum that can be given in a state race. Another Govern for California Committee acts as an intermediary for wealthy donors, with the majority giving the maximum $4400 to Wicks. Over $76,000 was raised for Wicks’ campaign committee by Govern for California. This money from wealthy donors is equal to almost half of the money Beckles raised, most of it from local donors.

More significant is the Govern for California Action Committee, which is the committee that expended to date $493,332.70 in support of Buffy Wicks. This paid for mailers supporting Wicks as well as for research and consulting work in support of her candidacy. A little over $120,000 was donated to this committee by David Crane. Over $36,000 was donated by a pro-charter schools PAC. Crane is a charter school supporter and critic of teachers’ unions.

While per pupil spending in in California ranks 41st in the nation, these wealthy donors to Govern for California are not advocating for reform of Prop 13 to generate more money for education. Nor will you find them calling for a higher minimum wage, single payer health care, funding for affordable housing or advocating other progressive positions. This is not a group that is addressing the growing economic inequality in this country.

The Govern for California Action Committee seems to exist largely to support Buffy Wicks. While two other candidates have received some support, over 95% of the expenditures to support candidates, in the current election cycle, have been spent to support Wicks, apparently the favorite of Govern for California and its founder David Crane. It seems fair to assume that they think she will advance their agenda if elected and would prevent election of a progressive Assembly member who would challenge that agenda.

Other candidates receiving support from Govern for California, via its Network Committee, include Marshall Tuck, who is running against Tony Thurmond for State Superintendent of Public Instruction, with over $175,000 in contributions channeled to Tuck, the second highest amount of support from Govern for California committees.

Catherine Baker, the Republican candidate in Assembly District 16, which includes Eastern Alameda County, Lamorinda and part of Walnut Creek, is also backed by Govern for California, which was an intermediary for over $88,000 in donations. The group also backs some moderate Democrats like Scott Weiner, author of SB 827.

The CNA-backed Candidate

Buffy Wicks was not the only candidate to benefit from independent expenditures, though far more outside money was spent for her than for any other candidate. Rochelle Pardue-Okimoto, Mayor Pro Tem of El Cerrito and a neonatal nurse at Alta Bates Hospital, who finished fifth in the primary, benefited from $137,715.40 of independent expenditure by a committee affiliated with her union, the California Nurses Association, and from $56,114.30 spend by the California African American PAC. Pardue-Okimoto was endorsed by current AD-15 Assembly member Tony Thurmond.

Rochelle Pardue Okimoto was not the only candidate backed by her union. Jovanka Beckles, who makes her living as a mental health specialist working with children, was supported by the PAC affiliated with her onw union, Teamsters Local 856 and by other Teamsters PACs, and by PACS affiliated with unions representing healthcare workers and other workers. Other candidates, including Dan Kalb, Andy Katz and Judy Appel had some union PAC support, with Appel winning support of the Berkeley Federation of Teachers and other unions representing educators. Both Appel and Beckles received contributions from the Equality California PAC.

Dan Kalb, supported by the Sierra Club, received a contribution from the Club’s PAC and one from a solar industry PAC. Union PAC money and the few other PAC contributions, though, played a relatively small role in the race, being totally dwarfed by all the outside money flowing to Buffy Wicks and spent in support of her candidacy by wealthy donors from outside the district.


What’s at Stake

It’s not just on charter schools and education that the candidates differ. Buffy Wicks is the only Democratic candidate in the primary who does not support repeal of Costa Hawkins Rental Housing Act. Under Costa Hawkins, cities like Berkeley that passed rent control before 1995 cannot extend rent control to housing built since rent control was adopted (1980 in Berkeley). And no city can apply rent control to any housing built after 1995. Costa Hawkins prevents cities from taking steps, if they choose to do so, to protect tenants from soaring rents. There will be an initiative on the fall ballot to repeal Costa Hawkins.

This fall’s election will determine whether outside money will prevail and whether a candidate with few ties to the East Bay and no track record, will end up representing one of the country’s more progressive districts. Her wealthy financial backers are not spending huge sums of money supporting her candidacy because they want to see progressive policy initiatives from AD-15’s representative.

Technical note: contributions received is the sum of those reported on the form 460 for calendar year 2017 and those reported on Form 460 for 2018 through May 19. Money received after May 19 is not included, nor are expenditures made after May 19, which will be included in later campaign filings. Percent contributors from inside the District and from out of state is calculated from the spreadsheets for contributions on the Secretary of State’s Web site for AD-15. People whose contributions were returned for some reason are not included in my count. Some contributors made more than one contribution. Data based on percent of contributions, which is easier to calculate, would differ somewhat from date based on contributors, where each contributor is counted only once. Not all of Oakland falls within AD-15. Six zip codes made up entirely or partly of parts of Oakland fall wholly or partly in AD-15. Any person or group with one of these six zip codes is considered to be a resident of AD-15, though in a few cases they aren’t since district boundaries do not conform exactly to zip code boundaries. Street addresses are not given, so sorting by zip code is the best that can be done. Average contribution per contributor is calculated by dividing the total amount of contributions as found in the spreadsheets on the Secretary of State Web site by the number of contributors.

Oakland City Councilmember Dan Kalb, who finished third behind Beckles, raised $279,21739 in the same period; 3% from out of state; 48% from inside the District. Much of the rest of his money came from parts of Oakland not in the District and from other Bay Area Cities.

Final Election Results Assembly District 15

by Rob Wrenn, June 22, 2018

Final Election Results Assembly District 15
Wicks vs Beckles in November

Contra Costa County finished their count of vote by mail and provisional ballots. Alameda County finished their count last week. Here are the final totals. Jovanka Beckles beat out Dan Kalb for second place by 619 votes and will face Buffy Wicks, who finished first, in November. Official Statements of Vote, when released, will provide results by precinct and city.

Buffy Wicks Votes Percent
Alameda County: 24,655 32.5%
Contra Costa County: 12,478 29.3%
Total: 37,133 31.4%

Jovanka Beckles
Alameda County: 11,123 14.6%
Contra Costa County: 7,602 17.9%
Total: 18,725 15.8%

Dan Kalb
Alameda County: 14,770 19.4%
Contra Costa County: 3,236 7.6%
Total: 18,006 15.2%

Judy Appel
Alameda County: 10,714 14.1%
Contra Costa County: 2,875 6.8%
Total: 13,589 11.5%

Rochelle Pardue-Okimoto
Alameda County: 4,065 5.4%
Contra Costa County: 5,760 13.5%
Total: 9,825 8.3%

Pranav Jandhyala
Alameda County: 3,038 4.0%
Contra Costa County: 3,907 9.8%
Total: 6,945 5.9%

Andy Katz
Alameda County: 3,461 4.6%
Contra Costa County: 2,747 6.5%
Total: 6,208 5.2%

Ben Bartlett:
Alameda County: 2,787 3.3%
Contra Costa County: 1,162 2.7%
Total: 3,949 3.3%

Other Candidates:
Alameda County: 1,229 1.6%
Contra Costa County: 2,779 6.5%
Total: 4,008 3.4%

Alameda County: 39.7%
Contra Costa County: 39.8%

Turnout was a lot higher than for the 2014 primary election, but a lot lower than turnout in the 2016 presidential primary. Results can be found on the Secretary of State’s Web site:



Why Berkeley Should Not Participate in Urban Shield Vendor Show and Tactical Exercises

From the Berkeley Daily Planet
Councilmember Kate Harrison
Saturday June 23, 2018 – 01:02:00 PM
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In 1990, the Berkeley Police Department (BPD) engaged in one of the most successful hostage rescue operations in history: Henry’s Hostage Crisis. This was not a case of foreign terrorism. The attacker was just 29 when he obtained three guns and took 33 people hostage. The BPD’s measured response to the situation was executed with textbook perfection. Their actions earned the BPD national acclaim, a legacy that our officers live up to each day.

Decades later, we see the BPD participating in a new and altogether different style of training — Urban Shield, a set of war games, tactical exercises, and weapons expos designed around a Bush-era counter-terrorism agenda. Using millions of dollars in Department of Homeland Security funding, the Alameda County Sheriff’s Office puts on 48 hours of tactical anti-terrorism exercises for federal and local departments. The only way to get full points in the competition is through full escalation of force. In a real-world hostage situation at Children’s Hospital in 2010, officers successfully resolved the crisis without loss of life but in an Urban Shield hostage scenario based on the event, teams “won” by escalating and killing the perpetrators.

Far from this real life example, many scenarios at Urban Shield are improbable and are built around military-grade technology featured by for-profit companies in the vender expo. Take one of last year’s exercises, supposedly based on the 2008 attacks in Mumbai. Designed by Execushield, the sensationalized scenario had officers use Navy-grade aquatic raiding craft to kill members of a Hezbollah terrorist group, which had crossed the US border from South America to set up an armed encampment in a wooded cabin near a reservoir in Livermore. More than just improbable, the exercise bore almost no relationship to the Mumbai attacks, which featured multiple shootings and bomb threats distributed across multiple days and urban locations.

Berkeley can and should do better than Urban Shield. After months of subcommittee meetings including the Police Chief and presentations from the SRT team (Berkeley’s SWAT), the Council’s Urban Shield Subcommittee recommended on June 4th that the BPD suspend participation for the 2018 vendor expo and tactical exercises until revisions are made to the program. Berkeley is not pulling out of Urban Shield entirely. Certain modules of this year’s Urban Shield — like the Emergency Operations Center exercises and the community fair – will focus on mass care and casualty. I encourage the BPD to attend these modules.

The Urban Shield program does not reflect our needs. In the past decade, rather than confronting terrorist threats, the police department has trended toward facing high-risk search, arrest warrant services, patrol support, and crowd management. The tactical exercises at Urban Shield do not focus on these activities but instead on politically-motivated mass violence, obscuring the principle of de-escalation in community crime encounters. Urban Shield squanders resources that could be used for pressing community concerns. Going forward, we propose that Urban Shield focus on much more likely crises such as earthquakes and the 1991 Oakland fire.

Moreover, the Urban Shield competition and expo don’t reflect our values as a community. Take ICE’s involvement in Urban Shield. Alameda is a Sanctuary County and Berkeley was the first Sanctuary City in the nation; even so, Urban Shield has stubbornly continued to host ICE, forcing our officers to exercise alongside a group that clearly stands against our city’s commitment to justice. In 2017, Urban Shield hosted the far-right Oath Keepers, a fundamentalist vigilante organization that provides security for white supremacist events like last year’s protests in Berkeley. Additionally, the exercises reinforce implicit racial biases against black and brown people in their representation within the program, expressing what Alameda County Supervisor Scott Haggerty calls racist undertones. Berkeley is against full escalation and the unnecessary use of force by officers — yet Urban Shield encourages officers to escalate.

Reform from within is no longer realistic. The Alameda County Board of Supervisors put guidelines in place that claimed to reform the event. Last year saw the Oath Keepers, ICE and surveillance firms participating anyway. Only some of the guidelines have been upheld and only after a community member brought violations to the attention of the Board, when the Sheriff signed a contract with a vendor that engages in blatant racial stereotyping.

Urban Shield is not salvageable through our involvement because Berkeley and the BPD have no input into it. Many of its failures could have been avoided if local input was considered. Outsourcing public safety training without local input is dangerous, and Urban Shield has refused to listen to the communities it is meant to protect.

Our officers need even more training in everyday emergency response and disaster preparedness. Lasts week’s shooting in South Berkeley shows this. The shooting was not by a terrorist or active shooter, but rather against a tenant by his landlord. The BPD used medical techniques taught to them at ongoing Bay Area Urban Areas Security Initiative trainings. More funding could be allocated to these if Urban Shield did not absorb $1.5 million of the $5 million annual grant.

Reforming Urban Shield has been an exercise in futility for the community and the city. While the discussion continues, it is time to throw the full weight of our community into this withdrawal, aligning our community preparedness with our needs and values while supporting our officers as they take this brave step away from Urban Shield and what it represents.

Results of Berkeley City Council and Auditor Endorsement Meeting

collage jpg online

More than 80 members of Berkeley Citizens Action and Berkeley Progressive Alliance met today the North Berkeley Senior Center Sunday afternoon to hear from candidates for City Auditor and City Council hopefuls for District 1, 4 and 8. Several candidates were not well known so it was a great opportunity to hear their statements and ask questions about their positions.

A big thank you to all who came out to hear the candidates and who volunteered to make the event happen: planners, candidates, supporters, MCs, ballot counters, photographer, the timekeeper and candidate greeter, and the crew who helped set up and take down the event. This event could not happen without you!

Endorsement results are listed below. Our organizations require 60% to endorse a candidate. Look for ideas in the coming weeks on how to support these candidates. Click on the links to see the candidates answers to our questionnaires.

City Auditor:
Candidates were Steve Levine and Jennifer Li Wong.
Ballot Results: No endorsement. Both Candidates had strong support, so no neither candidate could achieve the 60% threshold for endorsement.

City Council District 1: 
Candidates were Mary Behm-SteinbergRashi KesarwaniMargo Schueler and Igor Tregub.
Ballot Results: Igor Tregub Endorsed.

City Council District 4: 
Kate Harrison was the only candidate who requested our endorsement.
Ballot Results: Kate Harrison Endorsed.

City Council District 7:
No candidates requested endorsement at this time. Rigel Robinson, Cassandra King and Kriss Worthington decided to wait until the fall to ask for our endorsement. We expect to hold a meeting after Labor Day to discuss measures, propositions and unresolved candidate races.

City Council District 8: 
Candidates were Mary Kay LaceyAlfred Twu and Russ Tilleman
Ballot Results: Mary Kay Lacey Endorsed.

Photos above by Christine Schwartz


Join Berkeley Citizens Action & Berkeley Progressive Alliance for a Candidate Endorsement Meeting for City Council Districts 1, 4, 7 and 8, and City Auditor

Date and Time: Sunday April 29, 2-5 pm (Registration begins at 1:30 pm)

Location: North Berkeley Senior Center, 1901 Hearst Avenue

Help us choose our slate of progressive candidates for 2018. Candidates who have submitted their questionnaires and will be on the ballot are listed below. Click on their link to read their questionnaire.

City Auditor: Pamela BoyleSteve LevineJennifer Wong

City Council District 1: Rashi KesarwaniMargo SchuelerIgor Tregub & Mary Behm-Steinberg

City Council District 4: Kate Harrison

City Council District 7: Cassandra King

City Council District 8: Mary Kay LaceyAlfred TwuRuss Tilleman

This event is open to all. Members of BCA or BPA will be able to vote for endorsements. Past members may pay current dues (by check or cash) in advance or at the door. Please renew membership in advance to avoid lines during registration. No one turned away for lack of funds.

BCA: Membership is $35 yearly, $10 low income. To renew membership online:

BPA: Membership is $25 a year, or $10 for low income and students, $50 for sustainers. To renew membership online:

Questions? E-mail: or

8 Candidates plan to attend BCA-BPA Endorsement Meeting for City Council and Auditor, Sunday April 29 2-5:30 pm

What: Join BCA and BPA members to meet and endorse city candidates for council and auditor

When: Sunday, April 29, 2 to 5:30 p.m., Registration begins at 1:30 p.m.

Where: North Berkeley Senior Center, 1901 Hearst St (at Martin Luther King Jr. Way)

The following candidates have accepted our invitation to seek our endorsement:

City Auditor: Pamela Boyle, Steve Levine

City Council District 1: Cecily Brewster, Rashi Kersawani, Margo Schueler, Igor Tregub

City Council District 4: Kate Harrison

City Council District 7: Rigel Robinson

City Council District 8: Mary Kay Lacey, Alfred Twu

Candidates who return our questionnaires by April 19 will be listed on our endorsement ballots. Questionnaires will be posted on the BCA and BPA Web sites shortly after April 19.

Who can vote: You must be a member in good standing of either BCA or BPA to receive a ballot and vote at the April 29th meeting. If you have ever been a member of BPA, you may renew your membership before or at the April 29th meeting and will be able to vote. Annual dues are $25; $10 for low income and students. You can renew your membership online: We encourage members to renew before the meeting if possible to speed up the registration process on April 29th.

 E-mail:, Web site:


jovanka at ad 15 forumLet’s make Jovanka’s campaign more visible.  To get a sign: email with your address & phone number. Tell us whether you want a yard or a window sign and any special instructions for delivering it.

Jovanka is Vice Mayor of Richmond and active with the Richmond Progressive Alliance. She’s worked to pass a new Rent Control ordinance there and secured strong environmental protections against major polluter Chevron, while the company spent $3 million to defeat her.  The Berkeley Progressive Alliance, Berkeley Citizens Action and Berkeley Tenants Union have joined other East Bay progressives in endorsing this strong advocate.

Other Ways You Can Help

Donate to her campaign
Volunteer to Walk, Make Phone Calls, Host a House Party
Help Get Signs Out in Berkeley:
Learn More about Jovanka

Endorsement Meeting Results

AD 15 Endorsement Forum

About 115 members of Berkeley Progressive Alliance, Berkeley Citizens Action and Berkeley Tenants Union attended today’s forum to hear from Candidate for District Attorney and Assembly District 15.

Alameda County District Attorney:

Pamela Price won the endorsement for District Attorney

Total valid votes: 65
Pamela Price: 52 votes 80%
Nancy O’Malley: 8 votes 12%
No endorsement: 5 votes 7%
(Doesn’t total to 100% because of rounding)

California Assembly District 15:

Jovanka Beckles won the endorsement for Assembly District 15, in the 2nd round of ranked choice voting

Total valid votes: 74

Results for first choice count:

Jovanka Beckles: 44 votes 59%
Ben Bartlett: 9 votes 12%
Dan Kalb: 7 votes 9%
Andy Katz: 5 votes 7%
Judy Appel: 4 votes 5%
Rochelle Pardue-O 3 votes 4%
Owen Poindexter 2 votes 3%
Buffy Wicks no votes (Her child was taken to the hospital so she was not able to attend)
Cheryl Sudduth no votes
No endorsement: no votes
(Doesn’t total to 100% because of rounding)

When the second choice votes of Owen Poindexter’s 2 first choice voters were counted, Jovanka Beckles picked up the additional vote that she needed to reach 60%. Counting of votes stopped at that point. Poindexter was dropped first and his second choice votes were counted first because he had the lowest number of votes. Beckles certainly had additional second choice votes that she didn’t need.

Head counts suggest that about 115 people attended including candidates and those of their supporters who were not members of any of the sponsoring groups.